For the discovery of fundamental pathways and mechanisms that ensure accurate RNA splicing and quality control of gene expression involving RNA. Mutations in these pathways account for many human diseases.
For identifying Glucagon-like peptides and leading the field with studies extending from cells to humans, culminating in the development of these peptides as therapeutic agents for treating diabetes and short bowel syndrome.
For the development of optogenetics as a way to control the activity of specific circuits in the nervous system, to determine their function and ultimately to control them to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders.
For pioneering contributions to the discovery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and to the subsequent research that led to the development of transformational precision medicines to treat the underlying cause of cystic fibrosis.
For their pioneering discoveries in chemistry and parasitology, and personal commitments to translate these into effective chemotherapeutic and vaccine-based approaches to control malaria - their collective work will impact millions of lives globally particularly in the developing countries.
For their seminal contributions to concepts and methods of creating a genetic map in the human, and of positional cloning, leading to the identification of thousands of human disease genes and ushering in the era of human genetics.